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1. sekolah kebangsaan batu gajah melaka (1996-2001) 2. sekolah menengah kebangsaan bandar baru salak tinggi (2002-2004) 3. sekolah menengah sains selangor (2005-2006) 4. centre for foundation studies iium petaling jaya (2007-2009) 4. iium kuantan campus (2009-2014 insyaAllah)

Friday, April 16, 2010

Streptococcus pyogenes

Streptococcus pyogenes infections divided into 4 type:
Streptococcal pharayngitis : cause sore throat, red swollen tonsils and pharynx purulent exudates on the tonsils, high temperature and swollen lymph nodes.
Skin infections : focullitis, cellulitis, deep infections of the skin cells, impetigo. Given dicloxacillin (penicillinase resistance penicillin)
Scarlet fever : toxin releases caused fever. Rash also can occur at the trunk and neck and spread to whole body.
Streptococcal toxic shock syndrome : mediated by release of pyrogen toxin. High fever, nausea, vomiting, and watery diarrhea. Palms desquamation.

Thursday, April 15, 2010


Poliomyelitis is diseases causes by poliovirus and it attack our body especially CNS. Patients will come complaining about fever, sore throat, headache, vomiting and stiffness at the neck.
Paralytic poliomyelitis destroy nerve horns at the CNS. More severe it will cause meningimus. Cause damage also at presynaptic ( central motor neuron deficit ), postsynaptic ( peripheral neuron deficit ).


Scabies is cause by sarcoptes scabie which is flesh cutting insect or specifically mites. It is an ectoparasites which means cause disease or defect towards the host from outside or surface area. This ectoparasites can disseminated very quickly and lying eggs each time digging inside the skin.
The mode of infections is through man to man contact, sharing clothes, mattress, bed, and sexually activities. It is highly risk at the crowded area such as jail, hostel, army areas and care centre. Children are vulnerable towards this infections. Scabies preferred at the soft skin area such at arm pits, interdigit and groin. Clinical features are itchiness and erythematus eruption. Diagnosis can be confirmed by finding mites in burrow or ink into burrow. Drugs used to treat is benzene hexachloride.


Tubocurarine is a neuromuscular blocker used in surgery for muscle paralysis. Tubocurarine act at the terminal end of neuromuscular junction. It is classified under non-depolarized competitive drug which means the action is not to give depolarized at the presynaptic junction but just competitively block acetylcholine from binding towards the receptor. Thus no stimulation produce,and muscle become paralyze.
Pharmacokinetically given by IV and have half-life about 60-80 minutes. Not given orally as it will degraded by the digestion system.
Common side effect is tubocurarine can stimulate formation of histamine thus lead to anaphylactic shock such as hypotension, dangerous towards asthma patient as histamine can cause bronchoconstriction.


Arbovirus are arthropod-borne disease viruses, which transmitted by blood sucking bug such as mosquito. There are several type of virus can be classified under arboviruses.
1. Bunyaviruses = a) orthobunyavirus – california encephalitis
Hantavirus – Korean heamorrhagic fever
2. Flavivirus = Dengue, Yellow fever.
3. Reovirus
4. Togavirus

• Breakbone fever
• Mosquito borne
• Fever, severe headache, muscle and joint pain, nausea, vomiting, eye pain, rash
• Severe form = Dengue heamorrhagic fever and Dengue shock syndrome